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What is Bookkeeping?

basics bookkeeping Oct 30, 2020

“So what is bookkeeping?”

信不信由你,这其实是我们被问到最多的问题之一. 小企业主似乎明白这与基本的企业财务有关, but what is bookkeeping really?!

 

Bookkeeping Basics

 

“Bookkeeping” is the act of recording financial transactions. Seems simple, right?

 

Well, wait a second, 既然我们在这里,让我们把“事务”这个词也分解一下, so we have the most basic building blocks of bookkeeping!

 

What is a Financial Transaction?

 

There are two 一般类型的交易,你需要记录为你的簿记,你的 expenses and your income. 在最基本的层面上,你是在记录所花的钱 out of your business (an expense) and the money that comes into your business (your income).

 

Expense Basics

 

We need to record the money that goes out 这样我们就能知道我们的工作预算是多少. As a small business owner, you not only need to know how much money you’re spending, you need to know if you have money to spend!

这里有一些非常常见的交易,你会想要记录:

 

  • Expenses: Your rent, electric bill, utilities you pay to the city or county, alarm, copier bill, telephone and internet!
  • Vendors: The people you buy from! 就像你为你的客户提供东西一样,你也是别人的客户. You will want to keep records of who you pay and for what!
  • Wages: You may have employees to pay. 如果是这样,你就得计算工资税、预扣税款,并做好记录. 

 

提前记录你的开销就意味着 tax season 来吧,你已经有了你需要在表格上输入的信息(或给你的会计师)!). Less work means less stress, less taxes, and more savings!

 

Income Basics

 

We also need to record the money coming into our business so we can understand what is profitable. 这样我们就能知道我们可以在业务费用上花多少钱. 根据你的小公司的业务,你可以记录一些收入交易的例子:

 

  • Service Income Do you provide a fee-based service? You’ll want to record each service payment you receive.
  • Billable Income: Hourly rates, daily rates, consulting fees, 而收入则是基于与客户合作或项目所花费的时间.
  • Bank Deposits and Direct Payments: 你的客户可能通过银行十大外围体育平台排行榜支付给你,或者你可能从客户或客户那里收到一次性或经常性的付款. 你需要记录任何直接通过银行进入你的账簿,这样你就不会错过任何收入. These payments may be entirely automated, 这意味着你不会有与支付相关的直接客户活动.  但即使它是自动的,不要忘记它仍然需要成为你的书的一部分!

 

记录你的收入不仅能让你为纳税做好准备, 但它也能让你做出明智的管理决策,决定如何最好地经营你的企业.  更不用说要做好预算,并告知我们上面提到的所有与开支相关的决定!



Bookkeeping Basics: Accounts

 

帐户只是我们刚刚讨论过的金融交易的记录. 帐户可以是资产、负债、权益、收入或费用.  We just need to know the foundation to keep solid records. 下面是一些适用于小企业记账的例子:

  • Auto Expenses
  • Advertising
  • Contract Labor
  • Legal & Professional Fees
  • Utilities
  • Wages

 

这些只是一些普通的账户,小型企业可以使用它们来为我们的样本账户图表的完整列表对不同的交易进行分类.... Go HERE!

 

Bookkeeping Basics: Double-Entry

 

What is Double-Entry Bookkeeping?

 

简单地说:复式记账法跟踪资金来源和资金来源 account the money goes to. 每贷给一个账户,就会有相等和相反的贷给另一个账户.

 

courtesy of www.allenandallen.com

To compare, 单记账法只是简单地记录了一系列的交易, 不使用不同的资产或负债(这些将是不同的帐户, or sources for income and expenses)



Why small businesses should use double-entry bookkeeping

 

Why should you switch, 或者从复式记账法开始,而不是简单的单式记账法? Does it really matter that much?

I say, very dramatically, YES! It will make you a smarter business owner. 对你的生意做出更好的决定会使你成为一个 happier 也是企业主,这正是我们希望你能做到的!

Double-entry bookkeeping helps you catch errors that you would never notice if you were recording all of your transactions in one big account; and the more transactions you have to record, the more opportunities you have to make mistakes. 复式记账法可以让你不用担心这个,因为即使你 do make a mistake (which for the record, happens to all of us!), 当你在第一个账户上写的借方数字与你在第二个账户上写的贷方数字不匹配时,你就会发现你的错误.

 

复式记账法使你的记录更可靠,或者换句话说,更容易解释. 使用这些记录,您可以更深入地了解您的业务是如何工作的. 你可以形成报告来比较不同收入来源的盈利能力. When you, the business owner, 能清楚地看到你在哪里赚钱,在哪里花钱吗, you can make informed decisions about all sorts of things. 一些小而重要的例子包括:你能给自己(和你的员工)付多少钱?, unnecessary or inflated expenses, and even how to budget your time better!


Is Double-entry bookkeeping really basic bookkeeping?

 

You bet it is! While it may seem daunting at first, there are tons of available free tools, software programs, 以及帮助您学习小企业簿记的最佳实践的资源. 许多软件程序提供了方便复式记账法的能力,而不必输入两倍数量的记录. In fact, 簿记软件中的许多复式记账法是“幕后的”,是程序工作的一部分!  保持它的用户友好性和直观性,这样你就可以很快回到你最擅长的领域!

 

We hope to see you soon!

 

如果你准备学习更多关于簿记和会计的知识, 请关注本系列的下一篇博文,我们将在其中分解簿记与会计.  并向您推荐市场上最好的簿记软件!



Disclaimer 本文仅提供一般信息,无意提供税务或法律建议.  参考IRS的出版物,和你的税务人员讨论可能的税收减免.  

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